10 nov 2015





La Comisión Europea defiende la retroactividad absoluta en las acciones de nulidad de cláusulas suelo. Es la principal conclusión de las observaciones presentadas ante el Tribunal de Justicia de la Unión Europea (TJUE) por Bruselas, que no son vinculantes para los jueces del Tribunal.

“Según la interpretación del propio TJUE, no es posible que los tribunales nacionales puedan moderar la devolución de las cantidades que ya ha pagado el consumidor, y a la que está obligado el profesional, en aplicación de una cláusula declarada nula desde el origen por defecto de información y transparencia”, subraya la Comisión.

“La interpretación de no vinculación que realiza la Directiva 99/33/CEE es incompatible con una interpretación que determine que la declaración de nulidad de estas cláusulas extiende sus efectos hasta el momento de declaración de nulidad”, añade.

Contra la doctrina española

De este modo, el Ejecutivo europeo arremete contra la decisión del Tribunal Supremo de establecer que la devolución de las cantidades ya pagadas por las cláusulas suelo declaradas nulas por falta de transparencia, se debe producir sólo desde la fecha de la publicación de la sentencia de la Sala de lo Civil del mismo Tribunal, de 9 de mayo de 2013. La Sala Primera del Supremo, reunida en Pleno, acordó en febrero desestimar dos recursos de Cajasur y BBVA.

En el primero, la entidad andaluza pretendía que se rectificara la doctrina de la propia Sala sobre nulidad de las cláusulas suelo por abusivas, mientras que en el segundo, el BBVA requería que se definiera la fecha a partir de la cual se debía devolver el dinero en los casos de falta de transparencia, a la luz de la sentencia de 9 de mayo de 2013, asunto que la Sala vino a reconocer.

Ahora, por el contrario, Bruselas opina que “el cese en el uso de una determinada cláusula declarada nula por abusiva como consecuencia de una acción individual ejercitada por un consumidor no es compatible con una limitación de los efectos de dicha nulidad”. Sin embargo, la Comisión destaca que, a su juicio, existe una excepción. Argumenta que puede ser compatible “cuando dicha limitación sea necesaria para preservar el principio de cosa juzgada”.

Normativa comunitaria

Para justificar su posición, el Ejecutivo europeo invoca la Directiva 93/13/CEE del Consejo, sobre las cláusulas abusivas en los contratos celebrados con los consumidores. En su artículo 6 establece que “los Estados miembros establecerán que no vincularán al consumidor, en las condiciones estipuladas por sus derechos nacionales, las cláusulas abusivas que figuren en un contrato celebrado entre éste y un profesional y dispondrán que el contrato siga siendo obligatorio para las partes en los mismos términos, si éste puede subsistir sin las cláusulas abusivas”.

Además, las observaciones recuerdan el artículo 7 de la misma directiva, que señala que “los Estados miembros velarán por que, en interés de los consumidores y de los competidores profesionales, existan medios adecuados y eficaces para que cese el uso de cláusulas abusivas en los contratos celebrados entre los profesionales y los consumidores”.

En este sentido, la Comisión europea concluye que, en este texto, se prevén los mecanismos que garantizan el cese de aplicación de dichas cláusulas.


Despacho Jurídico.


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